Through this week study, readers will see the centrality of the temple as a picture of God restoring his presence with his people—and as a foretaste of the promised Messiah who would come to bring God's presence to his people forever. This study of the Gospel of Mark helps readers understand what vibrant faith and authentic discipleship looks like for those who follow a rejected king. This week study walks readers through the Gospel of Luke, showing how the birth, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ are just as relevant and important today as they were two thousand years ago.
This week study leads readers through the book of 1 Corinthians, highlighting how the gospel of Jesus Christ replaces pride with love and unites Christians to God and to each other. In this week study, Dane C. This week study leads readers through the book of Galatians, highlighting how the gospel gives Christians a new identity as adopted sons and daughters of God. This study shows how the books of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus exhort all Christians to pass on the true gospel of Jesus Christ, which has the power to save sinners.
Through clear exposition and application questions, Gilbert helps us rightly understand the book of James, which was written to fortify the connection between genuine faith and heartfelt obedience. This study looks at the letters written by Peter and Jude to churches, encouraging them to persevere in the midst of trials and look ahead to the return of Christ.
Over the course of 12 weeks, this study will help readers understand the practical wisdom found in 1—3 John regarding what it looks like to follow Jesus and walk according to his commandments. Written for those who want to understand the book of Revelation, this week study helps Christians see that Jesus has already defeated his enemies and freed Christians from their bondage to Satan, sin, and death.
Sign In. Kim Pastor Mitchell Kim leads readers through the first book of the Bible, uncovering the meaning of the text while exploring important applications for everyday life. Exodus Matthew R.
Deuteronomy Matthew H. Patton This study through Deuteronomy recounts as Moses calls Israel to faithful obedience while remembering the past faithfulness of God—pointing to the grace of God in the person and work of Jesus Christ. Judges Miles V. Ruth and Esther Kathleen Nielson Exploring two of the most memorable stories in the Bible, this week study highlights the love and faithfulness of God displayed in the books of Ruth and Esther.
Job Eric Ortlund This week study invites us to take an honest look at the agony and pain experienced by Job, which are immediately relevant in many ways to the suffering we all experience while on earth. Psalms Douglas Sean O'Donnell Designed for individuals and small groups alike, this week study through the Psalms explores their ability to transform our emotions and incline our hearts toward worship.
Proverbs Lydia Brownback In this week study, author Lydia Brownback leads readers through the book of Proverbs, uncovering its wisdom for godly living that both glorifies God and leads to blessing for his people. Ecclesiastes Justin S. The Council of Chalcedon , which marked a serious defeat of Alexandria, gave recognition, in its 28th canon, to Constantinople's extension of its power over Pontus and Asia in addition to Thrace.
Pope Leo I , whose delegates were absent when this resolution was passed and who protested against it, recognized the council as ecumenical and confirmed its doctrinal decrees, but rejected canon 28 on the ground that it contravened the sixth canon of Nicaea and infringed the rights of Alexandria and Antioch.
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Canon 9 of the Council declared: "If a bishop or clergyman should have a difference with the metropolitan of the province, let him have recourse to the Exarch of the Diocese, or to the throne of the Imperial City of Constantinople, and there let it be tried. Thus in little more than a hundred years the structural arrangement by provinces envisaged by the First Council of Nicaea was, according to John H.
Erickson, transformed into a system of five large divisions headed by the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. He does not use for these divisions the term patriarchate because the term patriarch as a uniform term for the heads of the divisions came into use only in the time of Emperor Justinian I in the following century, and because there is little suggestion that the divisions were regarded as quasi-sovereign entities, as patriarchates are in Eastern Orthodox ecclesiology.
The basic principles of the pentarchy theory, which, according to the Byzantinist historian Milton V. Anastos,  "reached its highest development in the period from the eleventh century to the middle of the fifteenth", go back to the 6th-century Justinian I, who often stressed the importance of all five of the patriarchates mentioned, especially in the formulation of dogma.
Justinian was the first to use in the title of "patriarch" to designate exclusively the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, setting the bishops of these five sees on a level superior to that of metropolitans. Justinian's scheme for a renovatio imperii renewal of the empire included, as well as ecclesiastical matters, a rewriting of Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis and an only partially successful reconquest of the West, including the city of Rome.
When in Constantine IV called the Third Council of Constantinople , he summoned the metropolitans and other bishops of the jurisdiction of Constantinople; but since there were representatives of all five bishops to whom Justinian had given the title of Patriarch, the Council declared itself ecumenical. The first Council classified in the East, but not in the West, which did not participate in it as ecumenical that mentioned together all five sees of the pentarchy in the order indicated by Justinian I is the Council in Trullo of , which was called by Justinian II : "Renewing the enactments by the Fathers assembled at the God-protected and imperial city, and those of the who met at Chalcedon; we decree that the see of Constantinople shall have equal privileges with the see of Old Rome, and shall be highly regarded in ecclesiastical matters as that is, and shall be second after it.
After Constantinople shall be ranked the See of Alexandria, then that of Antioch, and afterwards the See of Jerusalem. The 7th and 8th centuries saw an increasing attribution of significance to the pentarchy as the five pillars of the Church upholding its infallibility: it was held to be impossible that all five should at the same time be in error. The Byzantine view of the pentarchy had a strongly anti-Roman orientation, being put forward against the Roman claim to the final word on all Church matters and to the right to judge even the patriarchs.
The principal adviser of the two last-named popes, Anastasius Bibliothecarius , accepted the Byzantine comparison of the pentarchy with the five senses of the human body, but added the qualification that the patriarchate of Rome, which he likened to the sense of sight, ruled the other four. While the theory of the pentarchy is still upheld by the Greek Orthodox Church successor to the Byzantine Church, it is questioned by other Eastern Orthodox, who view it as "a highly artificial theory, never implemented until the great 5c. In addition the theory's insistence on the sovereignty of these five patriarchs was at least debatable".
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By , Muslim Arabs had taken over the territories assigned to the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, which thereafter were never more than partially and temporarily recovered. Nearly all the Byzantine writers who treated the subject of the pentarchy assumed that Constantinople, as the seat of the ruler of the empire and therefore of the world, was the highest among the patriarchates and, like the emperor, had the right to govern them. The idea that with the transfer of the imperial capital from Rome to Constantinople primacy in the Church was also transferred is found in undeveloped form as early as John Philoponus c.
Thus, for the Byzantines of the first half of the second millennium, the government of the Christian Church was a primacy belonging to the patriarchate of Constantinople, which however was choosing not to insist on it with regard to the west.
This was illustrated by Nilus Doxapatris, who in —43 insisted strongly on the primacy of the Church of Constantinople, which he regarded as inherited from Rome because of the transfer of the capital and because Rome had fallen into the hands of the barbarians, but who expressly restricted Byzantine authority to the other three eastern patriarchates. Patriarch Callistus, mentioned above, did the same about two hundred years later.
The Patriarchate of Constantinople recognized the patriarchal status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church Metropolitanate of Preslav in  , which thus became the first autocephalous Patriarchate outside the empire recognized by the Orthodox Church. Recognition had not been granted to the patriarchates of the Church of the East and Oriental Orthodoxy.ncof.co.uk/tres-kilometros-al-norte-de-la-ilusion.php
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The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church became autocephalous in and was elevated to Patriarchate in The Serbian Orthodox Church became autocephalous in , and was elevated to Patriarchate in although deemed schismatic at first. The Roman Catholic Church partially recognizes the Pentarchy, but not as an equal Pentarchy without an order of precedence starting with Rome immediately followed by Constantinople. Oriental Orthodoxy still holds to the theory of the three Petrine sees. The Assyrian Church of the East has no official position on the Pentarchy.
The following are the current archbishops of the Pentarchal sees, along with the churches that recognize them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about an ancient ecclesiastical order of Christendom. For other uses, see Pentarchy disambiguation. Not to be confused with Pantarchy or Pantachy. Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator , Hagia Sophia. Autocephalous jurisdictions.
Noncanonical jurisdictions. Evangelical Orthodox Western Orthodoxy. Celts France Gaul. Ecumenical councils. Liturgy and worship. Liturgical calendar. Major figures. Other topics. Patriarchs compared to popes. At the Old Ballgame.
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Before multimillion-dollar salaries, luxury boxes, and player strikes became synonymous with professional sports, there existed Before multimillion-dollar salaries, luxury boxes, and player strikes became synonymous with professional sports, there existed the belief in playing simply for the love of the game. Nothing captures that spirit better than these twenty classic pieces about America's favorite pastime.
Beyond Civilization and Barbarism: Culture and Politics in. Beyond Civilization and Barbarism examines how various cultural forms promoted competing political projects in Argentina Beyond Civilization and Barbarism examines how various cultural forms promoted competing political projects in Argentina during the decades following independence from Spain.
This turbulent period has long been characterized as a struggle between two irre. Can Our Church Live? Alban Institute senior consultant Alice Mann explains how Alban Institute senior consultant Alice Mann explains how the natural life cycle of a congregation, as well as other internal and external factors, can produce a congregation that is in real trouble.
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